Explain what a “redistributive economy” was and how it supported urban civilization. List some of the characteristics of a Bronze Age Mesopotamian (Sumerian or Akkadian) urban center.

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Jun 3, 2021

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PLEASE READ THE POWERPOINTS AND WATCH THE LECTURES TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS. I WAS ONLY ABLE TO UPLOAD SOME LECTURES BUT HERE IS THE LINK SO YOU CAN SEE THEM ALL:
https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1mHkVhi2eWgMhxXEN2f1IkpqRuB5gl8_h?usp=sharing
QUESTION
1
Briefly define and explain what
the “Neolithic Revolution” or “Agricultural Revolution”
was. List some of the important criteria regarding climate, geography,
plants, and animals that made the Agricultural Revolution possible. What
effect did the Agricultural Revolution have upon palaeolithic,
hunter-gatherer human society.
QUESTION
2
Define and explain what a “urbanism” or an
“urban civilization” is; be sure
to discuss “craft specialization” and “urban
stratification” in your explanation. What important role did rivers
play in the emergence of urban civilization? Explain what “agricultural
surplus” is and how it enables and supports urban civilization.
Explain what a “redistributive economy” was and how it supported
urban civilization. List some of the characteristics of a Bronze Age
Mesopotamian (Sumerian or Akkadian) urban center. What is
“cuneiform,” what was it first used for, and what is it’s
importance to historians? What was the role and importance of a
Ziggurrat in a Mesopotamian urban center? Who was Sargon of Akkad and
what was his importance?
QUESTION 3
1.
How is Bronze Age Egyptian history traditionally organized? What characterizes a “Kingdom Period?” What characterizes an “intermediate period?” What was the importance of the Nile River in sustaining Bronze Age Egyptian Civilization? What effect did the Nile River have on the ethnic and linguistic makeup of Bronze Age Egypt, as well as on its political unification? Who was Menes or Narmer, and what is he traditionally credited with doing? What are some of the ways that Egyptian Urbanism compares with that of Mesopotamia? What role did the Pharaoh play in Bronze Age Egyptian society? How did the Bronze Age Egyptians view the Pharaoh, and what is some of the archaeological and artistic proof of this? What are hieroglyphics and what are their importance? Briefly explain the current theory about what brought about the collapse of Bronze Age Egypt as well as it’s neighboring civilizations such as the Hittites and Assyrians.
QUESTION 4
1.
What are some of the ways that Indus River Valley Civilization compares to that of Mesopotamia and Egypt? What are some of the striking features of the urban centers of Harappa and Mohanjo-Daro, and what could we infer about Indus River Valley Civilization’s government and society by looking at the layout and structures of Harappa and Mohanjo-Daro? What is the major issue with the written sources left behind by the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley Civilization, and how does it significantly limit our understanding of this civilization, especially when compared to the sources left behind by the Mesopotamians and Egyptians? What is the current theory regarding the collapse of the Indus River Valley Civilization? What are the major sources for the successive Indo-Gangetic or Ganges River Valley Civilization, and what are the major problems?
QUESTION 5
1.
How is Ancient Chinese history traditionally organized; what are “dynasties” and how does this dynasty system or organizing Chinese history compare with that of Bronze Age Egypt? What was the “Tianming” or the “Mandate of Heaven” and how was it used by the Ancient Chinese to legitimize their political rulers? What are “oracle bones” and “Oracle Bone Script” and why are they important to historians for understanding this history of the Shang Dynasty? What are some of the problems with some of the other written Chinese primary sources for understanding early Chinese history? What are some of the ways that the emergence of urbanism in the Yellow and Yangtze River Valleys compare to other contemporaneous Bronze Age Civilizations? What technological innovation from Western Eurasia enabled the Shang to assert political control over large portions of the Yellow and Yangtzu River Valleys?
QUESTION 6
1.
Briefly explain explain what is “oasis urbanism” and how it compares and differs with the urbanism which emerged along river valleys. How did the various oasis settlements through out the Sahara Desert sustain themselves? What relations / connections did the various oasis settlements have with other major civilizations throughout the Mediterranean and Eurasia? Briefly explain what “slash and burn” agriculture is, what the major problems with this method is, and how societies which practiced it were effected. Briefly explain what the Bantu Migrations were, what were they caused by, and how the rest of sub-Saharan and Southern Africa was transformed by it.
QUESTION 7
1.
What are some of the current theories regarding the migrations of prehistoric humans into the Americas? What was the revolutionary significance of the discovery of the remains of Naia? What archaeological method do scholars use to trace the patterns and populations of prehistoric humans throughout the Americas? How did these prehistoric Native Americans sustain themselves? What are the characteristics of the Neolithic / Agricultural Revolution in the Americas? How did it differ from the Agricultural Revolution in Eurasia regarding the types of plants and animals domesticated, and what plant served as the staple surplus crop? What were the issues regarding metallurgy (the creation of copper and bronze tools), in the Americas, and how did it differ with metallurgy in Eurasia? What are some of the important characteristics of the Caral-Supe and Aspero urban centers? What could they tell us about this early urban society? How do they compare to Urban Civilizations in Eurasia?

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