Read from the below clients/skills scenario and create a task analysis (TA) for the skill. Explain how you would validate the task analysis you created (e.g., how you would determine what steps need to be completed for the skill). Remember to individualize your TA according to the age, skill level, and prior experience of the individual client.
Scenario to create a TA for:
8-year-old child with autism and developmental delay who must learn how to brush their teeth independently
For this discussion board, I chose the following scenario: an 8-year-old child with autism and developmental delay who must learn how to brush their teeth independently. To create a task analysis (TA) for brushing his teeth independently, I need to consider his current age, skill level, and prior experience with tooth brushing. A TA involves breaking a complex task into smaller units in sequential steps for the individual to follow (Cooper et al., 2020).
I would use a multiple-opportunity method of TA assessment so that I could assess the task completely instead of ending the task at the step that the individual cannot perform independently (Cooper et al., 2020). To create the TA for brushing teeth, I will observe a competent performer. When observing a competent performer, the following steps were completed for brushing teeth: going to the bathroom, getting toothbrush and toothpaste, turn water on, wet toothbrush, turn water off, open toothpaste, put toothpaste on toothbrush, close toothpaste, place toothbrush in mouth, brush top teeth for 30 seconds, brush bottom teeth for 30 seconds, spit toothpaste in sink, turn on water, rinse toothbrush, put water in cup, gargle water, spit water in sink, wipe mouth, put toothbrush and toothpaste away.
Before introducing the task analysis to the learner, I will execute it myself to ensure the TA is clear, each step is necessary, and the sequence is efficient (Cooper et al., 2020). The TA that I observed from a competent performer seemed too complex for an 8-year-old child with autism and developmental delay, so I modified the TA so that it is appropriate for their age, current skill level, and experience with toothbrushing. I will also provide a visual sequence along with simple phrases for each step in the TA.
Get toothbrush and toothpaste.
Put toothpaste on toothbrush.
Place toothbrush in mouth.
Brush top teeth for 10 seconds.
Brush bottom teeth for 10 seconds.
Spit toothpaste in sink.
Rinse mouth with water.
Put toothbrush and toothpaste away.
I will teach the TA using total task chaining. Using total task chaining, the learner will perform all steps of the TA each time the trial is run (Cooper et al., 2020). The therapist will be using least to most prompting for the steps where the learner cannot perform them independently.
Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2020). Applied behavior analysis (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.